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Saturday, December 15, 2012

(Very) early life on land: Just who is this Dickinsonia character, anyway?


Fig. 1. Dickinsonia (source: uonews.oregon.edu) 

My first impression upon hearing the hypothesis that Dickinsonia (Fig. 1) may be a lichen was that it does not look like any lichen I’ve ever seen. To be fair, the more normal interpretation that it is a marine animal, a segmented worm, sparks the same response…it does not look like any animal I’ve ever seen or heard of. What it actually resembles is a giant diatom, but that is pretty silly. This uncertainty is exactly what has been nagging paleontologists since the 1940’s….what are these things and what later life forms, if any, evolved from them? Dickinsonia and other Ediacaran Period (635-542 mya) fossils are enigmas. They left fossils in multiple locations world wide, then drop out of the fossil record before the Cambrian explosion in a mass extinction. 

I’m no expert on this topic, so I had to do a little looking into the history of Earth. I read Gould’s “It’s a wonderful life” several years ago purely for fun, but that is the extent of my paleontological expertise. It is common in the popular press to equate the Ediacaran time as representative of the beginnings of life. This is not true. Rather it could be the beginnings of animal life or the beginning of clearly complex multicellular life, but the Earth was already quite alive at this point. The major events are the origin of single-celled organisms and their radiation into archaea and bacteria about 3500 mya. The conventional thought is that this all occurred in the oceans, though there are other opinions. Photosynthetic bacteria showed up around this time, and maybe even were on land. Then, came the evolution of the cyanobacteria about 3000 mya which was extremely significant because their brand of photosynthesis produced oxygen as a waste product, and drew down CO2 in the atmosphere. It is plausible that they colonized land, but because they do not often leave convincing fossils on land, this is hard to prove. I would love to have Hugo Beraldi-Campesi weigh in on this, as I am out of my depth on this topic. The oxygen produced by the cyanobacteria immediately began rusting all of the iron in the Earths rocks, until this sink was saturated, i.e., all the surface iron had oxidized. At this point the great oxidation event occurred wherein the atmospheric oxygen started rising (~2500 mya) causing a mass extinction of anaerobic organisms, and also crippling the Earth’s greenhouse effect and causing a “snowball earth” episode of global glaciation, and partially frozen seas. This phenomenon happened a couple more times, possibly linked to other phenomena like super volcanos. After the last snowball Earth episode, a group of fossils called the Ediacaran fauna turn up supposedly inhabiting microbial mats on seafloors....check out the video below.



They are known from multiple locations all over the place suggesting global ubiquity. “Shortly” after, the famously rapid radiation of complex lifeforms (most of which went extinct) occurred in the Cambrian explosion, exemplified by the fauna of the Burgess shale. The Ediacaran animals are not part of this fauna, suggesting an extinction event, and plausibly leaving a bottleneck from which the Cambrian radiation occurred.
            It’s a great story, with holes, but all very reasonable given that the fossil record is always incomplete and many inferences must be made from incomplete data. What if the Ediacarans are not marine animals, and not animals at all? Then the animalian genetic lines that “exploded”, did not come form the Ediacaran…making the Cambrian explosion even more out of nowhere. The interpretation that these are lichens, marine ones (something that does actually exist today), was proposed by Retallack (1996). What if these were terrestrial organisms – including lichens and other fungi- inhabiting soils? That is what this new paper suggests (Retallack 2012). The new bit of information, that will be of great interest to people who read this blog, is the evidence that one key Ediacaran site in Australia (the type locality, actually) is composed of paleosols, not marine sediments (Fig. 2). The evidence is based on the patterns of oxidation, weathering into soil horizons, isotopic signatures, needle ice, carbonate and gypsum accumulations and cracking……..and “elephant skin” which is interpreted as a biocrust. Could there be biocrusts on land at this point, i.e. terrestrial community version 1.0? I think yes, we know cyanobacteria had been around for a very long time, and had all the tools they might need to grow on land (UV protection, desiccation tolerance, N-fixation, C-fixation). That is totally plausible, in fact they could have colonized after other photosynthetic bacteria actually making them terrestrial community version 2.0. As an ecologist, I find it hard to believe that the ocean would be teeming with microbial lifeforms in abundances great enough to overhaul the Earth's atmosphere, but the land surface would be sterile. I can easily believe that biocrusts are ancient. Retallack's (2012) interpretation is that this was a cold dry environment, so i do wonder why the putative fossil biocrusts don't have the high-relief pinnacled structure (up to 10 cm) associated with today's biocrusts in cold climates and sandy soils (e.g. the Colorado Plateau). Could the Ediacaran “fauna” be like the lichen components that colonize todays’ biocrusts? That’s the tougher one to believe. The first unambiguous fossil of a lichen is from the Devonian (Honegger et al. 2012), about the same time that plants radiated and came to dominate the continents.


Retallack's reinterpretation of depositional environment and fossils of the Ediacara Hills, Australia (source: ounews.orgon.edu). 


            It seems like Retallack has amassed multiple lines of evidence of the paleosol interpretation. As others have pointed out (Xiao & Nauth 2012), the weakness in the paleosol interpretation is that it is based on one of many localities. Even if these are paleosols, what about all of the other marine rocks which contain the same fossils, some of which are thought to be deep water formations. Some of them are clearly rippled, suggesting the action of water. Were these Ediacarans terrestrial AND marine organisms, then? It seems to me that for now the Ediacaran enigmas must remain enigmas. I do look forward to a reexamination of other Ediacaran sites, if nothing else this paper makes the Earth’s history just a little more fascinating than it already was (quite). Whether you believe him or not, Gregory Retallack seems like an intriguing scientist with a tendency towards provocative papers. This is how science works...once we get comfortable with a hypothesis, along comes a challenge. The scrutiny will likely lead us closer to the true nature of the Ediacarans, though we may have to wallow in deeper and deeper confusion for a while. As I’ve said multiple times here, this is not my expertise and many more knowledgeable people might come across this blog….. so please do light up the comments section with your impressions of this new paper.

Honegger, R., Edwards, D., Axe, L. 2012. The earliest records of internally stratified cyanobacterial and algal lichens from the lower Devonian of the Welsh borderlands. New Phytologist 197: 264-275

Rettalack, GJ. 1996. Were the Ediacaran fossils lichens? Paleobiology 20: 523-544.

Xiao S, Knauth, LP. 2012. Paleontology: fossils come in to land. Nature doi:10.1038/nature11765


Retallack, G. (2012). Ediacaran life on land Nature DOI: 10.1038/nature11777 ResearchBlogging.org

66 comments:

  1. Very interesting! You might like to look into some research by McMenamin & McMenamin; their book Hypersea is very engaging, and covers a lot of areas that this post touches on, including paleontology, microbial crusts, and lichens.

    It also briefly mentions a topic I want to write an article on - the fungal fusion hypothesis, which holds that modern plants are essentially overgrown lichens. Have you heard of this idea/have an opinion on it?

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  2. Thanks for the winter break reading suggestion. It turns out I had heard of the McMenamins for a completely different reason...some wild story about Icthyosaurs & giant squid. I'll see if I can find Hypersea at the library.

    Regarding the fungal fusion hypothesis...I am not really familiar with it, at least not by that name. Please feel free to tell me more. I know that especially the glomeromycota seemed to colonize land in lockstep with vascular plants and some bryophytes. One could envision plants as big inverted lichens, with the photobiont containing the mycobiont. The plant-fungal interface (arbuscule) and the lichen mycobiont-photobiont interface (haustoria) can be very similar, strengthening the analogy.

    Loosly aligned with this topic....I recently found the following to be a great read:Field KJ, Cameron DD, Leake JR, Tille S, Bidartondo MI, Beerling DJ. 2012. Contrasting arbuscular mycorrhizal responses of vascular and non-vascular plants to a simulated Palaeozoic CO₂ decline. Nature communications 835. doi:10.1038/ncomms1831

    Also, a bit of a tangent but for the sake of interesting fungi...check out Geosiphon pyriforme. This fungus is in the same order as the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Rather than colonizing and partially living within a producer like its kin, it has producers (cyanobacteria) living endosymbiotically within it.

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    1. Hello Guys,Startup this New Year with this Life Time transforming card .I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until now i discovered this hacker called Elizabeth. She is really good at what she is doing and she is Godsent, Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card from her If it works or even Exist She told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to her terms and conditions. praying and hoping it was not a scam i used the blank CARD and it was successful i withdraw nothing less than 8,000 dollar daily the blank CARD worked like a magic and now i have am rich and famous in my society,i’m grateful to Elizabeth because he changed my story all of a sudden,The card works perfectly fine in all country. Elizabeth’s email address is elizabethcole232@yahoo.com

      Delete
    2. I'm selling Western Union , Bank and Paypal Transfers all over the world. I'm getting much stuff through emails but also have a big experience in botnets etc. I've got 5 western union main computers data with the help of a strong botnet. Now I can change the info of a WU MTCN and can redirect any payment on any name. Simply I change the receiver name and country and payment goes to that person to whom i want to send. If anyone want to make big and instant money than contact me for deal.
      Info needed for WU Transfers :-

      1: First Name
      2: Last Name
      3: City
      4: Country

      Price List For WU Transfer:

      $1500 Transfer = $150 Charges
      $2000 Transfer = $300
      $3500 Transfer = $450
      $4500 Transfer = $500
      $5500 Transfer = $600

      Terms & Conditions :

      A person can take transfer once in a week and maximum 2 times in a month .

      If anyone want to do regular business with me then you must have many bank accounts,paypal,money bookers and fake ids for western union because after 2 or 3 transfers your paypal and Wu ids can be black listed or banned. So think before deal. Make big transactions and get a side and give other peoples chance or try to gather many fake accounts and work with me on regular basis.

      You can Contact us 24/7

      Contact us for deal : Email – Westernunionofficial.service@gmail.com

      Delete
  7. GOOD CARD WITH COOL CASH...Get THE 2017 BLANK ATM Programmed Card and cash money directly in any ATM Machine around you. There is no risk of being caught, because the card has been programmed in such a way that it´s not traceable, it also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV to detect you and you can withdraw a total sum of $5,000.00 USD daily,try and get yours today from (MR ANDERSON) And be among the lucky ones who are benefiting from it. Now email the hacker on
    hackersworldatm@gmail.com or +18454224913

    ReplyDelete
  8. Hi Viewers Get your Blank ATM card that works in all ATM machines all over the world.. We have specially programmed ATM cards that can be used to hack ATM machines, the ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, at stores and POS. We sell this cards to all interested buyers worldwide, the card has a daily withdrawal limit of $10,000 on ATM and up to $50,000 spending limit in stores depending on the kind of card you order for, and also if you are in need of any other cyber hack services, contact Accesshacking@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  9. Do you need hackers for hire? Do you need to keep an eye on your spouse by gaining access to their emails? As a parent do you want to know what your kids do on a daily basis on social networks ( This includes facebook, twitter , instagram, whatsapp, WeChat and others to make sure they’re not getting into trouble? Whatever it is, Ranging from Bank Jobs, Flipping cash, Criminal records, DMV, Taxes, Name it,i can get the job done. hovahack a professional hacker with 10 Years+ experience.Contact hovahack@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  10. Get rich today and take the risk of transforming your own life.Try and
    get an ATM card blank today (MR ANDERSON) and be among the lucky ones who are benefiting from this card. This ATM card in white set is capable of hacking into any ATM anywhere in the world. I have to know about this ATM card when I was looking for work online about a month ago..It has really changed my life forever and now I can say I'm rich because I am a living testimony. The less money I get in a day with this card is $ 3,000.Every now and then keep pumping money into my account.It is programmed and also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV to detect you..For details on how to get yours today, email hackers:unlimitedhackersworld@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  11. INSTEAD OF GETTING A LOAN, CHECK OUT THE BLANK ATM CARD IN LESS THAN 24hours {blankatmhaker@gmail.com}

    Am Mark Oscar,I want to testify about Jack Robert blank ATM cards which can withdraw money from any ATM machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no hope then I saw so many testimony about how Jack Robert send them the ATM blank card and use it to collect money in any ATM machine and become rich. I also email him and he sent me the blank card. I have use it to get 70,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of $5,000 daily. Jack Robert is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any ATM Machine Vault with the use of ATM Programmed Card which runs in automatic mode. email Him on how to get it now via: blankatmhaker@gmail.com or call/Text on +1(406) 350-4986

    ReplyDelete
  12. Help me thank HACKINTECHNOLGY after being scammed of $1500 he helped me find my cheating husband he
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    he helped me out with everything HACKINTECHNOLOGY
    is trust worthy and affordable contact HACKINTECHNOLOGY@GMAIL.COM

    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
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  15. SERVICES WE RENDERED

    WU.TRANSFERBUG@GMAIL.COM specializes on services like; Western Union and Money Gram Transfer, Bank Transfer And Bank Logins, PayPal Transfer And PayPal Logins.

    WESTERN UNION/MONEYGRAM

    We have big Western Union Hack for everywhere and any time for you. We transfer money to all countries/territories in the world that have Western Union and Money Gram Agents. We can transfer big amounts and you can receive this money in your country. We don’t deduct any % of your transfer because we are hackers of cash, we give your cash in full and with big transfers we do give discounts .We make it very safe and the service is very fast. We do fair and reliable work.

    INFO WE JUST NEED FROM YOU TO MAKE YOUR TRANSFER :-

    First and Last Name
    City, State
    Country

    ABOUT RISK
    To reduce risk we cannot do transfer to same name all the time, The transaction is done by our exchanger who send the money to the receiver. This is done to increase the margin of safety both for us and the receiver no complains.

    Western Union Price List

    1500$-150$
    2500$-300$
    3500$-400$
    4500$-550$
    5500$-600$
    6500$-700$
    7500$-800$

    CONTACT
    Contact us Email : wu.transferbug@gmail.com
    ICQ : 728 446 133

    ReplyDelete
  16. SERVICES WE RENDERED

    specializes on services like; Western Union and Money Gram Transfer, Bank Transfer And Bank Logins, PayPal Transfer And PayPal Logins.

    WESTERN UNION/MONEYGRAM

    We have big Western Union Hack for everywhere and any time for you. We transfer money to all countries/territories in the world that have Western Union and Money Gram Agents. We can transfer big amounts and you can receive this money in your country. We don’t deduct any % of your transfer because we are hackers of cash, we give your cash in full and with big transfers we do give discounts .We make it very safe and the service is very fast. We do fair and reliable work.

    INFO WE JUST NEED FROM YOU TO MAKE YOUR TRANSFER :-

    First and Last Name
    City, State
    Country

    ABOUT RISK
    To reduce risk we cannot do transfer to same name all the time, The transaction is done by our exchanger who send the money to the receiver. This is done to increase the margin of safety both for us and the receiver no complains.

    Western Union Price List

    3500$-400$
    4500$-550$
    5500$-600$
    6500$-700$
    7500$-800$

    CONTACT CALL/WHATSAPP: +1(929)390-8581
    Contact us Email : globalhackingcompany@gmail.com
    ...

    ReplyDelete
  17. your blog is very informative thanks for the write up
    ox gallstones for sale

    ReplyDelete
  18. We specialized in Bank Guarantee {BG}, Standby Letter of Credit {SBLC}, Medium Term Notes {MTN}, Confirmable Bank Draft {CBD} as well as other financial instruments issued from AAA Rated bank such as HSBC Bank Hong Kong, HSBC Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt, Barclays Bank , Standard Chartered Bank and others on lease at the lowest available rates depending on the face value of the instrument needed.

    We deliver with time and precision as sethforth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable, below is our instrument description.

    The procedure is very simple; the instrument will be reserved on euro clear to be verified by your bank, after verification an arrangement will be made for necessary bank documents and stock testing expenses, the cost of the Bank Guarantee will be paid after the delivery of the MT760.

    DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENT:
    Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG/SBLC).
    Total Face Value: Minimum of 1M Eur/USD (One Million Eur/USD) to Maximum of 5B Euro/USD(Five Billion Eur/USD).
    Issuing Bank: HSBC London, Barclays Bank, Deutsche Bank Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Any AA rated Bank in Europe or any Top 25 WEB.
    Age: One Year, One Day
    Leasing Price: 6% of Face Value plus 2% commission fees to brokers.
    Delivery: Bank to Bank SWIFT.
    Payment: MT-760.
    Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days.

    All relevant business information will be provided upon request plus our terms and
    procedures.

    Email: goldencrow59@gmail.com

    Name:Ashraf Billy

    Skype:goldencrow59@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I'm selling Western Union , Bank and Paypal Transfers all over the world. I'm getting much stuff through emails but also have a big experience in botnets etc. I've got 5 western union main computers data with the help of a strong botnet. Now I can change the info of a WU MTCN and can redirect any payment on any name. Simply I change the receiver name and country and payment goes to that person to whom i want to send. If anyone want to make big and instant money than contact me for deal.
      Info needed for WU Transfers :-

      1: First Name
      2: Last Name
      3: City
      4: Country

      Price List For WU Transfer:

      $1500 Transfer = $150 Charges
      $2000 Transfer = $300
      $3500 Transfer = $450
      $4500 Transfer = $500
      $5500 Transfer = $600

      Terms & Conditions :

      A person can take transfer once in a week and maximum 2 times in a month .

      If anyone want to do regular business with me then you must have many bank accounts,paypal,money bookers and fake ids for western union because after 2 or 3 transfers your paypal and Wu ids can be black listed or banned. So think before deal. Make big transactions and get a side and give other peoples chance or try to gather many fake accounts and work with me on regular basis.

      You can Contact us 24/7

      Contact us for deal : Email – Westernunionofficial.service@gmail.com

      Delete
  19. Ian scarffeNovember 22, 2018 at 6:23 AM
    I’m hacker and Services provider
    intersted in any thing i do fair deals.
    I will show you each and everything
    also teaching

    Western Union transfer
    I have all tools that you need to spam
    Credit cards.. money adders.. bill paying
    College fee.. fake documents.. grade change

    Contact me:
    skype : ianscarffe_1
    gmail : omoskovitz@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  20. Selling good and fresh cvv fullz

    track 1 and 2 with pin

    bank login

    bank transfer

    writing cheques

    transfer to cc ...

    Sell Fresh CVV - Western Union Transfer - Bank Login - Card Dumps - Paypal - Ship

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    Book Flight Online

    SELL CVV GOOD And HACKER BIG CVV GOOD Credit Card

    Fresh Cards. Selling Dumps, Cvvs, Fullz.Tickets,Hotels,Credit cards


    Sell Cvv(cc) - Wu Transfer - Card Dumps - Bank login/paypal

    And many more other hacking services

    contact me : hackerw169@gmail.com
    whatsapp: +1 613-701-6078


    - I have account paypal with good balance

    - I hope u good customers and will be long-term cooperation


    Prices WesternUnion Online Transfer


    -Transfer(Eu,Uk,Asia,Canada,Us,France,Germany,Italy and very

    easy to do African)

    - 200$ = 1500$ (MTCN and sender name + country sender)

    - 250$ = 4000$ (MTCN and sender name + country sender)

    - 400$ = 6000$ (MTCN and sender name + country sender)

    - 500$ = 8000$ (MTCN and sender name + country sender)

    Then i will do transfer's for you, After about 30 mins you'll have

    MTCN and sender name + country sender


    - Dumps prices

    - Tracks 1&2 US = 85$ per 1

    - Tracks 1&2 UK = 100$ per 1

    - Tracks 1&2 CA / AU = 110$ per 1

    - Tracks 1&2 EU = 120$ per 1


    Bank Logins Prices US UK CA AU EU


    - Bank Us : ( HALIFAX,BOA,CHASE,Wells Fargo...)

    . Balance 5000$ = 250$

    . Balance 8000$ = 400$

    . Balance 12000$ = 600$

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    . Balance 20000$ = 1000$

    - Bank UK : ( LLOYDS TSB,BARCLAYS,Standard Chartered,HSBC...)

    . Balance 5000 GBP = 300 GBP

    . Balance 12000 GBP = 600 GBP

    . Balance 16000 GBP = 700 GBP

    . Balance 20000 GBP = 1000 GBP

    . Balance 30000 GBP = 1200 GBP


    contact me : hackerw169@gmail.com
    whatsapp: +1 613-701-6078

    ReplyDelete
  21. Do you need a hacker? Do you need to keep an eye on your spouse by gaining access to their emails? As a parent,if you want to know what your kids do on a daily basis on social networks (This includes acebook, twitter ,instagram, whatsapp, WeChat and others to make sure they're not getting into trouble? Whatever it is,Ranging from Bank Jobs, Flipping cash, Criminal records, DMV, Taxes, Name it,he will get the job done.He's a professional hacker with 20 Years+ experience.Contact him at dragonhhacker@gmail.com or text to (862) 404-1374 …Contact him and Its done.Tell him Daura referred you

    ReplyDelete

  22. Hi. We are a best of hackers called international Group and we offer hacking services for everyone. Some of our services are: - Get any password from any Email Address. - Get any password from any Face-book, Twitter or Instagram account. - Cell phone hacking (whatsapp, viber, line, wechat,wire wire transfer Western union/money gram etc) - Grades changes (institutes and universities) Blank ATM - Websites hacking, pen-testing. - IP addresses and people tracking. - Hacking courses and classes. Our services are the best on the market and 100% secure and discreet guaranteed. Just write us and ask for your desired service: OUR EMAIL ADDRESS: globalhackingcompany@gmail.com or Call/WhatsApp: +1(929)390-8581

    ReplyDelete
  23. Do You Seek Funds To Pay Off Credits and Debts? { EllinasFinances@gmail.com } Is Here To Put A Stop To Your Financial Problems. We Offer All Kinds Of Loan (Personal Loan, Commercial Loan, etc.) We Give Out Loan With An Interest Rate Of 2.%. Interested Applicants Should Contact Us Via Email: EllinasFinances@gmail.com

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    If You Are Interested To Get A Loan Then Kindly Write Us With The Loan Requirement. Please, Contact Us via email: EllinasFinances@gmail.com ,,,

    ReplyDelete
  24. Honestly speaking, getting a genuine hacker is very rare... but my classmates Corporation has assembled the finest hackers in London, Texas and mostly his Cambridge colleagues .They show proof of their authenticity. Contact them at jamiehacking99 (AT) gmail (DOT) com

    ReplyDelete
  25. Hi guys I am the master of BLANK ATM AND CREDIT CARD,BITCOINS AT AFFORDABLE PRICE for everyone.

    We sell this cards to all our customers and interested buyers worldwide, the card has a daily withdrawal limit of $5000 and up to $50,000 spending limit in stores and unlimited on POS.
    FOR ORDERING

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    and the rest contact us now

    Call/WhatsApp: +1(929)390-8581

    E-mail: globalhackingcompany@gmail.com
    Contact us now for immediately help.....

    ReplyDelete
  26. WESTERN UNION MONEY TRANSFERS

    Prices in USD (for people in US, Canada):
    $1000 for $100
    $2000 for $200
    $3000 for $300
    $4000 for $400
    $5000 for $500
    $6000 for $600

    Prices in Euro (for people in Europe):
    €1000 for €100
    €2000 for €200
    €3000 for €300
    €4000 for €400
    €5000 for €500
    €6000 for €600

    Prices in GBP (for people in UK):
    £1000 for £100
    £2000 for £200
    £3000 for £300
    £4000 for £400
    £5000 for £500
    £6000 for £600

    and many more service available
    like credit card , Paypal , bank log ins etc

    contact on

    alastairsidi@gmail.com

    +1561506

    ReplyDelete
  27. James IS AN hacker who offer best quality professional hacking services that can’t be matched with other hackers. I am a professional hacker with the most advanced hacking technique to hack Social media, Email accounts, SmartPhone, Website, Database and many more. Also you can request for customized hack. These days hiring a professional hacker is difficult. You might get scammed for wrong hacking services or by fake hackers on the Internet. Don’t get fooled by scammers that advertising false professional hacking services. Some noteable services above that I'm providing 100% gurantee of success. Hit me up through; HACKINTECHNOLOGY@GMAIL.COM or text+16692252253

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I'm selling Western Union , Bank and Paypal Transfers all over the world. I'm getting much stuff through emails but also have a big experience in botnets etc. I've got 5 western union main computers data with the help of a strong botnet. Now I can change the info of a WU MTCN and can redirect any payment on any name. Simply I change the receiver name and country and payment goes to that person to whom i want to send. If anyone want to make big and instant money than contact me for deal.
      Info needed for WU Transfers :-

      1: First Name
      2: Last Name
      3: City
      4: Country

      Price List For WU Transfer:

      $1500 Transfer = $150 Charges
      $2000 Transfer = $300
      $3500 Transfer = $450
      $4500 Transfer = $500
      $5500 Transfer = $600

      Terms & Conditions :

      A person can take transfer once in a week and maximum 2 times in a month .

      If anyone want to do regular business with me then you must have many bank accounts,paypal,money bookers and fake ids for western union because after 2 or 3 transfers your paypal and Wu ids can be black listed or banned. So think before deal. Make big transactions and get a side and give other peoples chance or try to gather many fake accounts and work with me on regular basis.

      You can Contact us 24/7

      Contact us for deal : Email – Westernunionofficial.service@gmail.com

      Delete
  28. I Lost my Money to scammers but not anymore

    Well, who would have believed this. When I saw a comment

    by one Allison babara, I thought it was one of the Scammers

    ways to convince someone. Looking at his comment, I saw

    an element of doubt since he was telling stories. Well I did it

    50/50 which means I can’t lose my money to any scammer

    again. I contacted the email on the testimony of Allison?

    Babara securehackers01@gmail.com and I was

    replied immediately. I was shocked but I didn’t lose my stand.

    I asked them to give me proof to be sure they are not

    scammers like others that I have met before and they sent me

    a proof. Then I requested to get my card which they sent to

    me in Germany in just 3 days. Am happy now because I have?

    recovered my cash I lost to scammers. My first withdrawal?

    was $10,000 and I couldn’t believe my eyes until I confirmed?

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    month. secureblankatmSolution? are real because I got my?

    card in just 3 days when I requested for one. Contact their

    mail (securehackers01@gmail.com ) for yours. They

    didn’t scam me.

    Morris mabel is my name and if you are scared, please reach

    me through my mail dasinator02@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  29. Hello all
    am looking few years that some guys comes into the market
    they called themselves hacker, carder or spammer they rip the
    peoples with different ways and it’s a badly impact to real hacker
    now situation is that peoples doesn’t believe that real hackers and carder scammer exists.
    Anyone want to make deal with me any type am available but first
    I‘ll show the proof that am real then make a deal like

    Available Services

    ..Wire Bank Transfer all over the world

    ..Western Union Transfer all over the world

    ..Credit Cards (USA, UK, AUS, CAN, NZ)

    ..School Grade upgrade / remove Records

    ..Spamming Tool

    ..keyloggers / rats

    ..Social Media recovery

    .. Teaching Hacking / spamming / carding (1/2 hours course)

    discount for re-seller

    Contact: 24/7

    fixitrogers@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I was searching for loan to sort out my bills& debts, then i saw comments about Blank ATM Credit Card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any ATM machines around you . I doubted thus but decided to give it a try by contacting {Blankatmoffice@gmail. com} they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw $5,000 instant per day & was credited with$50,000,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card, after 24 hours later, i was shock to see the UPS agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card work's after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with this Via: Blankatmoffice@gmail. com or WhatsApp Via +1 (504) 500-0537..

      Delete
  30. I'm selling Western Union , Bank and Paypal Transfers all over the world. I'm getting much stuff through emails but also have a big experience in botnets etc. I've got 5 western union main computers data with the help of a strong botnet. Now I can change the info of a WU MTCN and can redirect any payment on any name. Simply I change the receiver name and country and payment goes to that person to whom i want to send. If anyone want to make big and instant money than contact me for deal.
    Info needed for WU Transfers :-

    1: First Name
    2: Last Name
    3: City
    4: Country

    Price List For WU Transfer:

    $1500 Transfer = $150 Charges
    $2000 Transfer = $300
    $3500 Transfer = $450
    $4500 Transfer = $500
    $5500 Transfer = $600

    Terms & Conditions :

    A person can take transfer once in a week and maximum 2 times in a month .

    If anyone want to do regular business with me then you must have many bank accounts,paypal,money bookers and fake ids for western union because after 2 or 3 transfers your paypal and Wu ids can be black listed or banned. So think before deal. Make big transactions and get a side and give other peoples chance or try to gather many fake accounts and work with me on regular basis.

    You can Contact us 24/7

    Contact us for deal : Email – Westernunionofficial.service@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. All recommendations are fake, fake IDs fake pictures in which peoples claims that someone are the hacker

      And they help them with money and they appreciate him/her on Internet. Western union sellers

      Are fake they don't even knows the limit if they claim they send Western Union then ask them to invite.

      you in their computer and ask them live proof instead fake pictures.

      I'm Professional seller.

      On Deep / Dark Web


      Following products are available for business.

      1. Selling cvv, fullz many country as: Canada,USA,Australia,UK...

      2. Shipping Products

      3. Drugs / Guns

      4. Hacking tools / software

      5. Fake Documents Passport / Driving License / Degrees

      6. Online Record Change / upgrade


      kanseq@protonmail.com

      telegram= @kanseq_Deep

      wickr= kanseq

      Tor link= http://2ogmrlfzdthnwky.onion

      Delete
  31. Hello all
    am looking few years that some guys comes into the market
    they called themselves hacker, carder or spammer they rip the
    peoples with different ways and it’s a badly impact to real hacker
    now situation is that peoples doesn’t believe that real hackers and carder scammer exists.
    Anyone want to make deal with me any type am available but first
    I‘ll show the proof that am real then make a deal like

    Available Services

    ..Wire Bank Transfer all over the world

    ..Western Union Transfer all over the world

    ..Credit Cards (USA, UK, AUS, CAN, NZ)

    ..School Grade upgrade / remove Records

    ..Spamming Tool

    ..keyloggers / rats

    ..Social Media recovery

    .. Teaching Hacking / spamming / carding (1/2 hours course)

    discount for re-seller

    Contact: 24/7

    fixitrogers@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  32. Hello all
    am looking few years that some guys comes into the market
    they called themselves hacker, carder or spammer they rip the
    peoples with different ways and it’s a badly impact to real hacker
    now situation is that peoples doesn’t believe that real hackers and carder scammer exists.
    Anyone want to make deal with me any type am available but first
    I‘ll show the proof that am real then make a deal like

    Available Services

    ..Wire Bank Transfer all over the world

    ..Western Union Transfer all over the world

    ..Credit Cards (USA, UK, AUS, CAN, NZ)

    ..School Grade upgrade / remove Records

    ..Spamming Tool

    ..keyloggers / rats

    ..Social Media recovery

    .. Teaching Hacking / spamming / carding (1/2 hours course)

    discount for re-seller

    Contact: 24/7

    fixitrogers@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  33. Hello all
    am looking few years that some guys comes into the market
    they called themselves hacker, carder or spammer they rip the
    peoples with different ways and it’s a badly impact to real hacker
    now situation is that peoples doesn’t believe that real hackers and carder scammer exists.
    Anyone want to make deal with me any type am available but first
    I‘ll show the proof that am real then make a deal like

    Available Services

    ..Wire Bank Transfer all over the world

    ..Western Union Transfer all over the world

    ..Credit Cards (USA, UK, AUS, CAN, NZ)

    ..School Grade upgrade / remove Records

    ..Spamming Tool

    ..keyloggers / rats

    ..Social Media recovery

    .. Teaching Hacking / spamming / carding (1/2 hours course)

    discount for re-seller

    Contact: 24/7

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    ReplyDelete
  34. INSTEAD OF OBTAINING A LOAN,THE BLANK ATM CARD IS AVAILABLE INLESS THAN 44 HOURS {martinshackers22@gmail.com}

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  35. Hello all
    am looking few years that some guys comes into the market
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  36. Looking for a debt consolidation loan, unsecured loans, business loans, mortgage loans, car loans, student loans, personal loans, venture capital, etc! I am a private lender, I provide loans to companies and individuals with low interest rates and reasonable interest rates of 2%. Email to: creditclearance4@gmail.com or text us via whatsapp +19782277925

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  37. I'm selling Western Union , Bank and Paypal Transfers all over the world. I'm getting much stuff through emails but also have a big experience in botnets etc. I've got 5 western union main computers data with the help of a strong botnet. Now I can change the info of a WU MTCN and can redirect any payment on any name. Simply I change the receiver name and country and payment goes to that person to whom i want to send. If anyone want to make big and instant money than contact me for deal.
    Info needed for WU Transfers :-

    1: First Name
    2: Last Name
    3: City
    4: Country

    Price List For WU Transfer:

    $1500 Transfer = $150 Charges
    $2000 Transfer = $300
    $3500 Transfer = $450
    $4500 Transfer = $500
    $5500 Transfer = $600

    Terms & Conditions :

    A person can take transfer once in a week and maximum 2 times in a month .

    If anyone want to do regular business with me then you must have many bank accounts,paypal,money bookers and fake ids for western union because after 2 or 3 transfers your paypal and Wu ids can be black listed or banned. So think before deal. Make big transactions and get a side and give other peoples chance or try to gather many fake accounts and work with me on regular basis.

    You can Contact us 24/7

    Email – Westernunionofficial.service@gmail.com

    ICQ – 728 446 133

    ReplyDelete
  38. They are all scammers, they will make you pay after which they will give you an excuse asking you to pay more money, they have ripped me of $2000, i promised i was going to expose them.
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    ReplyDelete
  39. A lot of people have no idea about a working blank ATM card and a lot of people have been scammed in search of the Blank ATM card. It is longer news that global hacking company (email: globalhackingcompany@gmail.com) or whatsApp +1(929)390-8581 is one of the few hacking groups that can provide you with a working Blank ATM card in anywhere around the globe. The programmed Blank ATM card can provide you with up to $5000 daily on any ATM without been caught. Those that require the Blank ATM card should look no further but contact him now and get working Blank ATM card within 24 hours
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    ReplyDelete
  40. Hello world
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    ReplyDelete
  41. Hello everyone..Welcome to my free masterclass strategy where i teach experience and inexperience traders the secret behind a successful trade.And how to be profitable in trading I will also teach you how to make a profit of $12,000 USD weekly and how to get back all your lost funds feel free to email me on(brucedavid004@gmail.com) or whataspp number is +22999290178






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    ReplyDelete
  42. Selling good and fresh cvv fullz

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    ICQ: 699 396 818


    - I have account paypal with good balance

    - I hope u good customers and will be long-term cooperation


    Prices Western Union Online Transfer


    -Transfer(Eu,Uk,Asia,Canada,Us,France,Germany,Italy and very

    easy to do African)

    - 200$ = 1500$ (MTCN and sender name + country sender)

    - 350$ = 4000$ (MTCN and sender name + country sender)

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    - 600$ = 8000$ (MTCN and sender name + country sender)

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    - Dumps prices

    - Tracks 1&2 US = 85$ per 1

    - Tracks 1&2 UK = 100$ per 1

    - Tracks 1&2 CA / AU = 110$ per 1

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    - Bank Us : ( HALIFAX,BOA,CHASE,Wells Fargo...)

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    . Balance 30000 GBP = 1200 GBP


    contact me : hackerw169@gmail.com
    ICQ: 699 396 818

    ReplyDelete
  43. We Bring To You Good News From Hennager Blank ATM Cards..

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